Squamous esophageal cancer is considered as the most common cancer subtype (histologically) found in the middle and upper part of the esophagus characterized by high mortality rate. The incidence of this disease can vary to a great extent among various regions of the world and happens at a very high frequency in South America and Asia.
No one till now knows the exact causes of esophageal cancer. But, it is known that they are formed when the esophageal cells develops mutations or errors in the DNA. The errors help in the growth of cancerous cells which divide in a very uncontrollable manner. The cells get accumulated in a very abnormal manner as esophageal tumor which grows in order to invade the structures nearby and spread to various other body parts.
Squamous esophageal cancer cells are found to be thin and flat which line the esophageal surface and normally occurs in the middle part of the esophagus. It is said to be one of the most common types of esophageal cancer observed worldwide. When the skin cell of the esophagus is damaged genetically this type of cancer is formed. Some of the warning signs include bleeding, sores, pain, improved redness, enhanced size and thickening or hardening. Most often this type of cancer starts as a small sized red bump over the skin and during the advanced stages can exhibit characteristics like flat or bumpy, scaly or crusted, bleeding sores, red, pin or flesh colored or reddish brown color skin.
They are normally diagnosed using askin biopsy which is a simple and brief procedure. It involves skin numbing using a local anesthetic injection and then snipping out the piece or tumor from it. This sample skin is then read by a pathologist and offer results after a week’s time. Treatment options are based on the tumor size, location and its likelihood to spread or metastasize.
Squamous esophageal cancer is said to have multi-factorial etiology that involves various genetic or/and environmental factors. Present therapies and treatment modalities provide very poor curing and survival rates. Even though various approaches might be followed for lowering the occurrence of squamous esophageal cancer including enhanced nutrition and alterations in the lifestyle the approaches might not be that easily implemented. But chemoprevention is believed to be a very viable alternative solution which is found to be effective combating this disease.
Various novel biomarkers like nucleolar/nuclear morphometry are used for analyzing the preneoplastic lesions are developed for measuring the efficacy of chemopreventive agents that work against squamous esophageal cancer.
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